Liebovitch, L. S., Vallacher, R., Nowak, A., Bui-Wrzosinska, and Coleman, Peter, T. (2008). Dynamics of two-actor cooperation-competition conflict models. Physica A.
We present a nonlinear ordinary differential equation model of the conflict between two actors, who could be individuals, groups, or nations. The state of each actor depends on its own state in isolation, its previous state in time, its inertia to change, and the positive feedback (cooperation) or negative feedback (competition) from the other actor. We analytically determined the stability of the critical points of the model and explored its dynamical behavior through numerical integrations and analytical proofs. Some results of the model are consistent with previously observed characteristics of conflicts, and other results make new testable predictions on how the dynamics of a conflict and its outcome depend on the strategies chosen by the actors.